Activated charcoal, or activated carbon, removes contamination through a process called adsorption. Pollutant molecules in the water are trapped inside the pore structure, or micropores, of the charcoal surface. Every particle of charcoal has a very large pore structure which means you get maximum possible exposure to the contaminated water. One pound of activated charcoal contains a surface area of approximately 100 acres. Activated charcoal absorbs chlorine, sediment, chemicals, iron, lead, odor and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The use of Activated charcoal has been found to be one of the best natural compounds for filtering out these unwanted elements while also improving taste and color clarity. This, coupled with its lightweight makeup, mean Activated charcoal is an ideal filtration method for camping, traveling, or in an emergency situation.
Activated Charcoal Filter:
Hollow Fiber Membrane
Hollow fiber membranes, or Ultrafiltration, are used to remove particulate and molecules from contaminated water. Hollow fiber works through size exclusion. The hollow fiber tubes have thousands of tiny holes (0.1 microns) that block 99.9999% of harmful bacteria, Giardia, E. coli, protozoan cysts, Cryptosporidium and more. All of these organisms are too large to fit through the 0.1 micron holes. Some of benefits of using hollow fiber are; there are no chemicals required, you can backflush the fibers to remove particulate and increase life of the filter, hollow fiber exceeds regulatory standards of water quality, and there is no shelf life for the fiber.
Using the same ultrafiltration technology viruses can be excluded. With holes measuring 0.02 microns, rather than the traditional 0.1 mircons, the dangerous viruses are removed and viruses such as Hepatitis A, Polio, Typhoid, Enteroviruses, and more are filtered out. Additionally, this same filter can block 99.999% of bacteria as the tiny holes are much smaller which creates secure barrier from contaminates.
Hollow fiber is used in many different industries, including, chemical and pharmaceutical manufacturing, food and beverage processing, blood dialysis, and waste water treatment.
Hollow Fiber Membrane Filters:
Ion-Exchange resins act as a medium or polymer inside a filter which exchanges dangerous ions for better ions. The ions are housed in an insoluble matrix that are in the form of small white microbeads which are porous. Being porous increases the surface area on the outside and inside of the microbeads. As dirty water passes through the microbeads they capture poisonous and heavy metals ions such as copper, lead, and cadmium and replace them with sodium and potassium. This process improves the taste of the water while removing harmful metals and contaminates. For optimal filtration, Ion-Exchange microbeads are combined with Activated Carbon.